Tag Archives: aperture

Getting It Right – ND Filters

In yesterday’s post, I discussed my preference for honing my technical skills to Get It Right In Camera. While it’s true we are in the digital age of photography, and can “fix” most problems in post-processing, that is not true of film photography. For example, if we shoot in RAW format, the camera records every single detail from the sensor, allowing us to digitally manipulate everything from the exposure to correcting sharpness. 

Imagine you wanted to make a photograph of a waterfall on a bright sunny day. You’d want to properly expose the photograph. So you’d set your ISO tot he lowest setting (100) to eliminate noise, and you’d set your Aperture to say f8, and your shutter speed might be 1/125 of a second. Great ! A nice capture…

But say you wanted to make the photo so that the flowing water has that dreamy, foggy sort of look to it. Well, you’d want to slow down your shutter speed. Of course in order to do so, you’d need to adjust your ISO and Aperture to compensate. But wait ! This is your 35mm film camera – you can’t adjust your ISO, it’s fixed. That only leaves you with your Aperture to adjust. You don’t want to “stop down” the Aperture, as that will affect the depth of field, blurring more of the photograph. What to do, what to do ?

Enter the Neutral Density (ND) filter. Pictured above, attached to my Canon 7N, is a 3-stop ND filter. The purpose of an ND filter is to decrease the amount of light hitting the sensor without needing to change the Aperture. They are typically measured in “stops” of light. Every stop down represents a 50% decrease in size of the Aperture, so a 3-stop filter will take us from f8 to f64 without changing the depth of field ! This gives us the equivalent to changing the shutter speed from 1/125 seconds to 1/15 seconds – which is our goal !

In the left image, I used no filter. On the right we slowed down the shutter speed to allow in more light, and affixed the 3-stop filter. If you look very closely, the right photo has some blurring in the branches, where the left does not. Can you tell the difference in colours ? No ? That’s why it’s called a “neutral” density filter – it doesn’t change the colour in any way. Note that I applied zero post-processing effects to either of these photos, as I wanted to insure they were identical except for the filter & change in shutter speed.

Take a second scenario – imagine you’re making a landscape photo on a hillside on a bright sunny day. You’ve got the camera situated in some shady spot, and you’re overlooking some fields below, and the sun is high overhead. To create a pleasing composition, you’d want some of the shady branches in the foreground to frame the bright fields below you. But if you set the exposure for the sunny fields, the foreground is too dark. Oppositely, if you expose for the branches, the sunny fields are washed out by the bright sunshine. What to do, what to do ? 

On a digital camera you have a number of options. You could take multiple exposures, each exposed for the differently lit sections, and blend them together. This would increase the dynamic range of the photograph. Or you could apply a filter in Lightroom or Capture1 Pro that changes the exposure on just the over-exposed portion of the photo. On a film camera, we don’t have that luxury – we have to get it right in camera !

Enter the Graduated Neutral Density (GND) filter. It is almost identical to the ND filter, except that the filter isn’t evenly shaded. It has two areas – one half filters no light (0 stop change) while the other half filters the light (say 3-stops change). When exposing the film, simply pop the GND into its holder, expose for the shady foreground, and take the photo ! 


The Big Cull

Like many amateur photographers, I started out using the basic software provided with either my laptop or my camera to edit & manage my photo library. I kept all my photos, arranged loosely by date. As my skills improved, I started down the path of post-processing – moving from capturing my photos as JPEGs to RAW format, so that I could tweak them in more advanced software.

At first, I used the simplistic Apple Photos application. It was “good enough”. But soon, as my passion really stated to ignite, I needed a better system. Being the Apple fanboy that I am, I imported all my photos into Aperture. It was a great way to learn about how better to catalogue my fast-growing photo collection. And it let me tweak my RAW photos, correcting the white-balance & such. And then Apple killed it…

I was quite upset when this happened. I had only just finished learning how to manage my library and defined a workflow to edit my images. I was angry that Apple had turned their back on MY creative community. I fought against it for a while, even sending emails to Tim Cook (no response, sadly) in a desperate bid to stay with Aperture. I fought the good fight, but ultimately lost.

Of course, the Mac-daddy in the space is Adobe’s solutions – Lightroom and Photoshop. There are literally thousands of YouTube how-to videos to ease my transition. There was, however, no tool to manage the transition. I exported some 16,000 images from Aperture, only to import them again in Lightroom. Faced with the decision to either export JPEGs of edited photos, or the original RAW photos, I was heartbroken to see all my edits lost. Hours of editing and learning as I went, down the tubes.

Don’t get me wrong, Adobe has done some very seductive things – releasing Lightroom Mobile for iOS was incentive enough to upgrade my iPad to a 128GB with Retina display, so that I could truly have a very mobile-capable workflow. That it auto-magically synced my photos back to my Lightroom desktop catalogue is a huge advantage ! And bundling both Lightroom and Photoshop into a single monthly subscription is pretty darn valuable, IMHO.

Fast forward a couple of years. I stumble across a review of the MacPhun Luminar software, probably on PetPixel where Sharky James hosts an awesome weekly podcast (shameless plug !). So I figured it was time to look around the photo-editing landscape. Chris Gampat, editor of The Phoblographer, also raved over CaptureOne by Phase1. The more I dove into the subject, the more I came to realize that many professional photographers eschewed Lightroom and Photoshop ! How could this be ? 

I downloaded a free 30 day trial and was impressed by the difference. Starting with importing the RAW photos, which seemed to be much more brilliant than the same photos in Lightroom. While the interface is a little daunting, I dove right in & worked through about two dozen images. I like it an awful lot ! But now I have the hard decision – do I completely give up my mobile workflow in Lightroom (I really don’t use Photoshop very much, as I am still learning it) ? Can I justify abandoning Lightroom and Photoshop altogether ? Some photographers continue to use Lightroom for its cataloging capabilities, while importing & editing the RAW photos in CaptureOne. But then I’d be paying for two subscriptions, more than doubling my cost !

Sounds like I’m waffling all over the place, doesn’t it ? I think I’m at a “coming of age” moment in my journey as a photographer. Before I make any such decision, I need to start an undertaking I’ve been avoiding for a few months now. I need to cull my library ! As I said in the beginning, I’ve kept every photo, good, bad or horrific ! Most are unrated, with no keywords for searching. Frankly I have a quarter-terabyte mess to clean up. Whether I stay with Lightroom or migrate to CaptureOne, I need to do this. Wish me luck !

Slowing Down …

As you might recall, I bought a little Canon Canonet QL-19 rangefinder (pictured on the left) as an inexpensive attempt to start working with film. I know, I know – the whole world has gone digital. What the heck could I possibly be thinking ? Let me try to explain…

The truth of the matter is that modern cameras are built to help new photographers with “auto everything”, whether it’s shutter speed, aperture or ISO. Straight out of the box, they take darn decent photographs without any knowledge or forethought from the person behind the lense. Where is the creativity in that ? I first got into photography because it stoked the geek side of my brain – learning about new techniques – while engaging the less-developed creative side of my brain. 

Modern cameras, be they DSLR or Mirrorless varieties are able to shoot multiple frames per second, and many amateur photography blogs suggest new photographers set their cameras to do so, hoping to get that one “good” shot. I tried this method early on and my “success” rate was dismal. There had to be a better way. And there is – slowing down.

By slowing down, elements like composition, framing and story-telling emerge. Good advice includes “What story am I trying to tell ?”, and “What emotion will this photo evoke ?”. By forcing myself to manually meter the light, and spending more than a few minutes looking for the right angle, and even waiting for the right light, I hope to nurture the more creative side of my craft.

Sadly, the little Canonet suffered the same fate of most of its brethren – sticky shutter. I blew threw an entire roll of 24 exposures before I finally diagnosed the problem. I might tear it down – there’s plenty of instruction videos on YouTube, but in the long run it may not be worth the effort. Even if I do get the shutter working properly, I still can’t purchase batteries for the on-board light-meter. Containing mercury, that size & style of battery has long been discontinued. Pity, really…

But I’m a died-in-the-wool Canon fanboy. I have bought a number of Canon bodies, including the T3i, 60D, and my mirrorless M5. I carefully selected these bodies to grow with my skills. I got good advice about investing in glass rather than the latest & greatest bodies (still haven’t seen a need to go full frame yet !), so any body has to work with my Canon L-Series lenses. I worried that this would be a problem in returning to film. 

Then I read a review on The Phoblographer, written by Chris Gampat about the Canon EOS Élan 7N. It was one of the last semi-pro (or pro-sumer) film cameras before Canon switched to digital. A quick search on kijiji.com and lo & behold a student at ACAD had one for sale in good shape ! It’s the one pictured on the right in the above photo.

I’m going to start by shooting Black & White, hoping to learn more about contrast & texture. I’ll get the local London Drugs to develop them for me, and ask for digital copies. So if you see B&W photos on my Instagram feed, you’ll know what they were shot with. Wish me luck !